Sesendok

INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Endospermum spp. (Euphorbiaceae). Only one species, viz. E. diadenum, occurs in Peninsular Malaysia, while in Sabah and Sarawak there is another species, E. peltatum. Vernacular names applied include ekor belangkas (Sarawak), inchong Perlis (Kedah), membulan (Peninsular Malaysia), sendok (Sabah), sendok-sendok (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak), sendok-sendok mata (Sabah) and terbulan (Sarawak). The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is bright yellow when fresh, often with a green tinge and darkens to light brown on exposure.

Also known as Sesendok (Brunei); Kavula and Lekutu (Fiji); Bakota (India); Kayu labu, Membulan and Sendok-sendok (Indonesia); Basswood and Tau (Papua New Guinea); Gubas (Philippines); Endospermum-sasa and Hongopo (Soloman Islands); and Famo, Lokhao and Taphong (Thailand).


DENSITY

The timber is a Light Hardwood with a density of 305-655 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

Based on the standard graveyard test of untreated specimens of dimensions 50 mm x 50 mm x 600 mm, the wood is classified as non-durable under Malaysian conditions. In a test conducted at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), the average service life for 29 untreated specimens was 1 year (Jackson, 1965). When green, the timber is liable to blue-stain fungal infection.


PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

The timber is very amenable to preservative treatment and is classified as extremely easy to treat.


TEXTURE

Texture is rather coarse but even with spiral, shallowly interlocked or slightly wavy grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group D (Engku, 1988b) or SG 7 (MS 544: Part 2:2001). 


Strength Properties of Sesendok

Test Condition

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

Modulus of Rupture(MPa)

Compression parallel to grain (MPa)

Compression perpendicular to grain (MPa)

Shear Strength (MPa)

Green

8,500

39

20.8

1.75

5.4

Air dry

-

-

-

-

-


MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is easy to saw and plane and produces a smooth surface.


Machining Properties of Sesendok

Test condition

Sawing

Planing

Boring

Turning

Re-sawing

Cross- cutting

Ease of planing

Quality of finish

Ease of boring

Quality of finish

Ease of turning

Quality of finish

Green

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

easy

moderately smooth


NAILING PROPERTY

Nailing property is excellent.


AIR DRYING

The timber seasons fairly rapidly without serious degrade except for some insect attacks. 13 mm thick boards take 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 3 months.


KILN-DRYING

Kiln Schedule J is recommended. 25 mm thick boards take approximately 5 days to kiln-dry to 10% moisture content without any degrade.


Kiln Schedule J

Moisture Content (%)

Temperature (Dry Bulb)

Temperature (Wet Bulb)

Relative Humidity (%) (approx.)

F

C

F

C

Green

135

57.0

123

50.5

70

50

135

57.0

119

48.0

60

40

140

60.0

118

47.5

50

30

150

65.5

121

49.0

40

20

170

76.5

127

53.0

30


SHRINKAGE

Shrinkage is low, with radial shrinkage averaging 1.2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 1.3%. 


DEFECTS

The logs are usually reasonably sound but small areas of spongy heart may occur. Severe borer damage as well as staining will occur if there is delay in extracting felled logs (Desch, 1941; Smith, 1957).


USES

The timber is a favoured species for the manufacture of match splints and boxes. The timber is also suitable for pattern making, drawing boards, plywood, packing boxes and crates, toys, wooden clogs, disposable chopsticks, pencil, ladies shoe sole, tooth picks and furniture.


REFERENCES

  1. Desch, H. E. 1941. Manual Of Malaysian Timbers. Mal. For. Recorded No. 15, Vol. 1
  2. Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. 1988b. Basic and Grade Stresses for Strength Groups of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 38. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 13 pp.
  3. Jackson, W.F. 1965. Durability Of Malayan Timbers. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No.28.
  4. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Insitute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  5. Mohd. Shukari Midon. 1982. Malaysian Timbers - Sesendok. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 66. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 6 pp.
  6. MS 544: Part 2: 2001: Code Of Practice For Structural Use Of Timber. Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  7. Smith, J. S. 1957. Report On Forest Administration for the year 1957, Federation of Malaya. Forestry Department, Peninsular Malaysia.
  8. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.