Terentang

INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Campnosperma spp. (Anacardiaceae). Vernacular names applied include ketang (Sarawak), telatang (Sabah) and terentang (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak) with various epithets. Major species include C. auriculatum, C. coriaceum and C. squamatum. The sapwood is not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is bright pink when fresh and takes on a grey tinge on exposure.

Also known as Terentang (Brunei); Pauh lebi, Terentang and Tumbus (Indonesia); Campnosperma (Papua New Guinea); Karamati (Soloman Islands); Aridda (Sri Lanka); and Huasum, Nangpron and Sangtrang (Thailand).


DENSITY

The timber is a Light Hardwood with a density of 320-560 kg/m3 air dry and an average density of 432 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

Based on the standard graveyard test on untreated specimens of dimension 50 mm x 50 mm x 600 mm, the wood of C. auriculatum is classified as not durable having a service life of only 6 months. The other species can also be considered to have a poor service life. The timber is susceptible to sapstain fungal infection. The timber was reported by Menon (1967) to be immune to powder-post beetle attack. However, Thomas (1950) observed that attack occurred in the sapwood but was not so serious. The wood of C. auriculatum treated with 100% creosote to an absorption of 175 kg/m3 (11 lb/ft3) gave an average service life of 10.3 years in the graveyard tests.


PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

The timber is easily treated with preservatives.


TEXTURE

Texture is fine and even, with interlocked grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group D (Engku, 1988b) or SG7 (MS 544: Part 2:2001).


Strength Properties of Terentang

Species

Test Condition

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

Modulus of Rupture(MPa)

Compression parallel to grain (MPa)

Compression perpendicular to grain (MPa)

Shear Strength (MPa)

C. auriculatum

Green

5,700

31

15.4

1.21

5.7

Air dry

7,000

42

22.4

2.21

7.5

C. coriaceum

Green

9,300

35

18.8

1.57

5.0

Air dry

-

-

-

-

-

  
MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy but the planed surface is rough and woolly with considerable picking up of the grain.


NAILING PROPERTY

Nailing property is rated as excellent.


AIR DRYING

Seasoning properties vary with species and the results obtained from some of the species tested are summarised in the table below: 

Species

Time to air dry (months)

Remarks

13 mm
thick boards

38 mm
thick boards

C. auriculatum

1

2

Very fast drying; slight bowing; moderate twisting, insect attacks and staining.

C. coriaceum

-

5

Fairly slow drying; severe splitting.

 

 

 

 


KILN-DRYING

The timber has not been tested for its kiln-drying characteristics but judging from its low density and air drying properties, there should not be any difficulty in this timber using the schedule for red meranti (Kiln Schedule F) or even that for jelutong (Kiln Schedule H). 


Kiln Schedule F

Moisture Content (%)

Temperature (Dry Bulb)

Temperature (Wet Bulb)

Relative Humidity (%) (approx.)

F

C

F

C

Green

120

48.5

111

44.0

75

60

120

48.5

109

43.0

70

40

125

51.5

109

43.0

60

30

130

54.5

109

43.0

50

25

140

60.0

115

46.0

45

20

155

68.0

124

51.0

40

10

170

76.5

136

58.0

40


Kiln Schedule H

Moisture Content (%)

Temperature (Dry Bulb)

Temperature (Wet Bulb)

Relative Humidity (%)(approx.)

F

C

F

C

Green

135

57.0

127

53

80

50

135

57.0

126

52

75

40

140

60.0

126

52

65

30

150

65.5

129

54

55

20

170

76.5

136

58

40


SHRINKAGE

The shrinkage of terentang is summarised below:

Species

Shrinkage (%) (Green to air dry)

Remarks

Radial

Tangential

C. auriculatum

1.6

3.2

High shrinkage.

C. coriaceum

2.1

5.5

Very high tangential shrinkage.

 

 

 

  

DEFECTS

Small areas of spongy heart may be present in some logs, in which minute compression failures or cross-breaks may occur. The logs are liable to split through the pith but other forms of splits or checks and natural defects are not common. Shot-hole and pin-hole borers may occur both in the sapwood and heartwood (probably after felling) but this is usually slight. Staining may occur from the ends of logs or where bark has been removed.


USES

The timber is suitable for match-boxes, match splints, pencil, packing boxes and crates, ornamental items, plywood, disposable chopsticks, ladies' shoe soles, sandals, toothpicks and particleboards. 


REFERENCES

  1. Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. 1988b. Basic And Grade Stresses For Some Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 38. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board And Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 13 pp.
  2. Grewal, G. S. 1986. Malaysian Timbers - Terentang. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 103. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 8 pp.  
  3. Menon, K. D. 1967. Susceptibility of Commercial Species of Malayan Timbers to Powder-post Beetle Attack. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 27 (Rev.).  
  4. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Insitute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  5. MS 544: Part 2: 2001: Code Of Practice For Structural Use Of Timber. Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  6. Thomas, A. V. 1950. Malayan Timbers - Bintangor, Geronggang and Terentang. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No.12.
  7. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.