Bangkal

INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sabah origin, for the timber of Nauclea spp., Neonauclea spp. and Ochreinauclea spp. (Rubiaceae). Vernacular names applied to this timber include bangkal (Sabah) with various epithets, jengkai (Sarawak), lenggaung (Sarawak), mangkal (Peninsular Malaysia) and mengkal (Peninsular Malaysia). Major species include Nauclea officinalis; Neonauclea pallida; and Ochreinauclea maingayi. The sapwood is lighter in colour and merges gradually into the heartwood, which is characterised by a bright yellow or orange hue.

Also known as Anggerit, Atap tun, Bengkal, Bengkal Udang, Gempol, Gonoebeli, Leharun, Lobani poete and Pedumba (Indonesia); Cheese wood and Yellow hardwood (Papua New Guinea); and Bangkal, Hambabalud, Kalamansanai, Lisak, Ludek, Malauisak, Southern bangkal, Tikim and Uisak (Philippines).


DENSITY

The timber is soft to moderately hard with a density of 335-980 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

The timber is reputed to be moderately durable.


TEXTURE

Texture is moderately fine to slightly coarse, with interlocked grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group C (Burgess, 1958).


MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is reported that the timber works easily and finishes well.


AIR DRYING

The timber is reputed to dry well with slight checking and warping.


SHRINKAGE

Shrinkage is rather high, with radial shrinkage averages 1.3% and tangential shrinkage averages 3.2%.


USES

The rather rare occurrence of the trees precludes any extensive exploitation of the timber. The timber is suitable for plywood, flooring, furniture, ornamental items and pallets.


REFERENCES

  1. Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No.25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
  2. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.