The common Malaysian name for the timber of Grewia spp. and Microcos spp. (Tiliaceae). Vernacular names applied include bunsi (Sarawak), damak-damak (Peninsular Malaysia) and kerudong (Sabah). Major species include Grewia polygama; Microcos antidesmifolia, M. cinnamomifolia, M. fibrocarpa, M. lanceolata, M. latifolia, M. laurifolia, M. triflora and M. tomentosa. The sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is in various shades of brown, pink-brown or light purple-brown, often becoming grey-brown on exposure.

Also known as Dhaman (India); Boenoe, Bunsui, Darowak, Gendarang, Kimangar and Talok (Indonesia); Myat-ya and Tayaw (Myanmar); Dangling, Kamuling and Maladanglin (Philippines); and Lai, Po lai, Po-muen and Yap (Thailand).


The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of 415-900 kg/m3 air dry.


The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.


Texture is moderately fine and even, with interlocked and sometimes spiral grain.


The timber is reported to be fairly stony and tough. It is reputed to work well and finishes very well.


Seasoning properties are reported to be good although the timber is susceptible to sapstain.


The timber of Grewia is generally used for small articles where toughness is required, like tool handles, spades, shafts of golf sticks, shoulder poles for carrying small loads, pestles, bows, billiard cues and shingles. On the other hand, the timber of Microcos is used for general construction under cover (e.g. rafters) and also for small objects where strength and elasticity are required (e.g. tool handles, agricultural implements, sporting goods and vehicle bodies). Tests indicated that the timber of this species might be suitable for pulping.


  1. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.