The Standard Malaysian Name, which is of Sarawakian origin, for the timber of Elaeocarpus spp. (Elaeocarpaceae). The ASEAN Standard Name for the timber, which is of Indonesian origin, is JENITRI. Vernacular names applied include empedu (Sarawak), kungkurad (Sabah), parius-parius (Sabah), perdoh (Sarawak), sanga (Sarawak) and sanga burong (Peninsular Malaysia). Medang (Peninsular Malaysia), with various epithets, has also been erroneously applied to some of these species. Major species include E. apiculatus, E. floribundus, E. palembanicus, E. obtusus, E. griffithii, E. petiolatus E. polystachys, E. robustus, E. angustifolius and E. stipularis. The sapwood of the timber is not differentiated from the heartwood, which is light yellowish white to pink-brown and mauve in E. floribundus.

Also known as Silver quandong and Tropical quandong (Australia); Rudrak (India); Bengkinang, Jenitri, Mendang and Mentanahan (Indonesia); Mai moun and Mai mun (Laos); Thitpwe (Myanmar); Papua New Guinea quandong (Papua New Guinea); Hunggo and Kalomala (Philippines); Ma mum (Thailand); and Chang chang (Vietnam).


The timber is soft to moderately hard and light to moderately heavy with a density of 465-785 kg/m3 air dry.


The timber is non-durable.


it is difficult to treat with preservatives.


Texture is moderately fine and even, with straight to shallowly interlocked grain.


The timber falls into Strength Group D (Burgess, 1958) or SG 6 (MS 544:Part 2:2001).


It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is moderately smooth.


Nailing property is rated as good.


The timber seasons fairly slowly with moderate insect attack and slight end-checking and surafce-checking as the main sources of defects. 13 mm thick boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 4.5 months.


Shrinkage is fairly low, with radial shrinkage averaging 0.8% and tangential shrinkage averaging 2.2%.


The timber is suitable for general planking purposes, shuttering, packing boxes and crates, pallets, match splints and plywood.


  1. Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
  2. MS 544:Part 2:2001. Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Timber: Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  3. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.