Samak

INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timbers of Adinandra, Gordonia and Schima (Theaceae). Vernacular names applied include bangkao (Sabah), bangkau (Sabah), bawing (Sabah), gatal-gatal (Peninsular Malaysia), gegatal (Peninsular Malaysia), jalong (Peninsular Malaysia), legai (Sarawak), medang gatal (Peninsular Malaysia), meluluk (Sabah), mengkula (Peninsular Malaysia), samak pulut (Peninsular Malaysia), tekoyong-koyong (Sarawak), tetiup (Peninsular Malaysia) and tiup-tiup (Peninsular Malaysia). Major species of the timber include Adinandra caudatifolia, A. dumosa, A. integerrima, A. sarosanthera, A. villosa; Gordonia multinervis, G. taipingensis; and Schima wallichii. In Gordonia and Schima, the sapwood is usually lighter in colour or dirty white and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is red, red-brown or purple-red-brown, sometimes with streaks of darker colour. In Adinandra, the sapwood is lighter in colour and not clearly defined from the heartwood, which is grey-brown with a purple tinge to dark red-brown.

Also known as Chilauni and Nagetta (India); Kasilala, Kayu manjel, Letok, Osole, Pelempang hitam, Puspa, Tabi, Tadungin and Weindie (Indonesia); Boun nak, Khai sou and Mi (Laos); Laukya and Needlewood (Myanmar); Schima (Papua New Guinea); and Bunnak and Mang Tan (Thailand).


DENSITY

The timber is moderately hard and moderately heavy with a density of 530-920 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

The timber is non-durable.


PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

The heartwood is easy to impregnate with preservatives.


TEXTURE

Texture is rather fine and even, with interlocked and frequently irregular grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group B (Burgess, 1958).


MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is fairly easy to easy to resaw and cross-cut and is easy to slightly difficult to plane. The finish is, however, smooth.


NAILING PROPERTY

Nailing property ranges from excellent in Schima to poor in Adinandra.


AIR DRYING

The seasoning properties of the timber are summarised below:

Species

Time to air dry (months)

Remarks

13 mm thick boards

25 mm thick boards

38 mm thick boards

Adinandra dumosa

3

-

4

Moderately slow drying; moderate cupping and splitting; severe staining.

A. villosa

-

5

-

Slow drying; slight twisting.

Schima wallichii

2.5

-

3

Fairly fast drying; severe cupping, bowing, twisting and splitting; slight end-checking and surface-checking.


SHRINKAGE

The shrinkage of the timber is summarised below:

Species

Shrinkage (%)
(Green to air dry)

Remarks

Radial

Tangential

Adinandra dumosa

2.3

2.4

Fairly high shrinkage

A. villosa

1.7

4.4

High shrinkage

Schima wallichii

2.1

3.4

High shrinkage


USES

The timber is suitable for flooring, panelling, mouldings, door and window frames, planking, plywood, wooden pallets and charcoal manufacture.


REFERENCES

  1. Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
  2. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.