The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of Xylocarpus spp. (Meliaceae). Vernacular names applied include nyireh (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak) with various epithets. Major species include X. moluccensis and X. granatum. The sapwood is light yellow-brown, straw-coloured or light pink and is sharply differentiated from the heartwood, which is light red to very dark red, sometimes streaked with darker colours.

Also known as Ndambi (Fiji); Pussur (India); Boeli poete, Kontaboe, Kontawoe kadea and Nyireh bunga (Indonesia); Mangrove cedar (Papua New Guinea); Piagau and Tabigi (Philippines); and Pussur, Taboon-dum and Tabun Khao (Thailand).


The timber is moderately hard to hard and is moderately heavy to heavy with a density of 625-880 kg/m3 air dry.


The timber is moderately durable under exposed conditions.


Texture is fine and even, with interlocked and irregular grain.


The timber is reported to be difficult to saw and work due to the presence of the irregular grain but a smooth finish can be obtained.


The timber dries moderately slowly. The sapwood can be severely attacked by pinhole borers during drying and the timber is also subject to end-checking and splitting.


Shrinkage is moderately high with radial shrinkage averaging 2% and tangential shrinkage averaging 3.2%.


The timber is very attractive and is suitable for high class cabinet work, interior finishing, panelling, mouldings, partitioning, stair railings and shelves. The timber is extensively used for carvings and ornamental items.


  1. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.