The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Terminalia spp. (Combretaceae). The timber of this genus shows a marked diversification in properties and further sub-divisions may be warranted. Vernacular names applied include belang rimau (Peninsular Malaysia), belawan (Peninsular Malaysia), jaha (Peninsular Malaysia), jelawai (Peninsular Malaysia) with various epithets, mempelam babi (Peninsular Malaysia), talisai (Sabah) with various epithets, and telinsi (Sarawak). Major species include T. bellirica, T. calamansanai, T. catappa, T. citrina, T. copelandii, T. foetidissima, T. phellocarpa and T. subspathulata. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is light brown in T. citrina and T. copelandii, yellow in T. subspathulata and red-brown in T. catappa.

Also known as Damson (Australia), Taour (Cambodia); Almondwood, Arjun, Bahera, Black Chuglam, Hillock, Kindal, Laurel, Myrobalan, Silver grey, White bombwe and White chuglam (India); Jaha, Kalumpit and Ketapang (Indonesia); Haen, Mai peuay leuat, Seuak and Som mo (Laos); Taukyan (Myanmar); Gahwah, Gaurah and Talis (Papua New Guinea); Binggas, Kalumpit, Lanipau, Sakat and Talisai (Philippines); Talie (Samoa Islands); Paka and Terminalia (Soloman Islands); Balu and Kumbok (Sri Lanka); and Haen and Rokfa (Thailand).


The timber is moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy. The individual species shows a marked variation in density, which ranges from 385 to 850 kg/m3 air dry. The timber is classified under Light Hardwood in Malaysia.


The timber is non-durable under exposed conditions.


Texture is moderately fine and even in T. citrina and moderately coarse in others. Grain is interlocked, often deeply interlocked.


The timber falls into Strength Group A to Strength Group C (Burgess, 1958) or SG 5 (MS 544:Part 2:2001).


It is easy to saw and work and the planed surface is generally smooth.


The nailing property is rated as good.


The timber seasons fairly rapidly to moderately slowly with almost no degrade except for some minor insect attacks. 13 mm thick boards take approximately 2.5 to 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 2.5 to 5 months.


Shrinkage is rather low. Radial shrinkage averages 0.9% while tangential shrinkage averages 1.6%.


The timber is suitable as a general planking timber, interior finishing, panelling, mouldings, skirtings, joinery, cabinet making, furniture, plywood, flooring, packing boxes and crates, pallets (expendable type) and staircase (apron lining, baluster, balustrades, carriages, handrail, risers, stringers, treads, bullnose, round ends and winder).


  1. Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
  2. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  3. MS 544:Part 2:2001. Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Timber: Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  4. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.