The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of Parishia spp.(Anacardiaceae). Vernacular names applied include kedondong hijau (Peninsular Malaysia), layang-layang (Sabah), sepul (Peninsular Malaysia), surian (Peninsular Malaysia) and upi (Sarawak) with various epithets. Major species include P. insignis, P. maingayi and P. paucijuga. The sapwood is not well defined but is slightly lighter in colour than the heartwood, which is red-brown to light brown.
Also known as Red dhup (India); Balom tembaga, Kayu bengkarung and Kayu sepa (Indonesia); Pwe-baung (Myanmar); Bulabog and Malabog (Philippines); and Chan-ruchi and Ngokkhang (Thailand).
The timber is soft, light to moderately heavy with a density of 545-755 kg/m3 air dry.
The timber is non-durable, being susceptible to powder-post beetle attacks.
Texture is fine and even with interlocked grain.
The timber falls into Strength Group D (Burgess, 1958).
It is very difficult to saw and difficult to work. The planed surface produced is rough.
The nailing property is rated as excellent.
The timber seasons fairly rapidly with only slight degrades in the form of cupping, bowing and twisting. 13 mm thick boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 3 to 4 months.
Shrinkage is very high, especially in the tangential direction. Radial shrinkage averages 2.1% while tangential shrinkage averages 5.5%.
The timber is suitable for light construction, general planking, pallets (expendable type), packing boxes and crates, toothpicks and plywood.
Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 25. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.