The Standard Malaysian Name as well as the ASEAN Standard Name for the timber of Carallia spp. (Rhizophoraceae). Vernacular names applied include kemuning hutan (Sabah), merawai (Sabah), rabong (Sarawak), radipah (Sarawak), tikolod (Sabah) and yulu tambang (Sabah). Major species include C. borneensis, C. brachiata, C. euryoides and Carallia sp. 1. The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood and is moderately distinct from the heartwood, which is red-brown with an orange hue.

Also known as Carallia (India); Ringgit darah (Indonesia); Maniawga (Myanmar); Bakauan gubat (Philippines); Dawata and Uberiya (Sri Lanka); and Chan Phra (Thailand).


The timber is hard and heavy with a density of 670-930 kg/m3 air dry. The timber is classified under Medium Hardwood in Malaysia. 


The timber is moderately durable.


It is amenable to preservative treatment.


Texture is coarse and uneven, due to the presence of the extremely large rays. Grain is straight, interlocked or slightly wavy.


The timber falls into Strength Group A (Burgess, 1958) or SG 4 (MS 544:Part 2:2001).


It is easy to fairly easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is also easy to fairly easy and the surface produced is smooth to moderately smooth.


The timber seasons fairly slowly, with only slight insect attacks and sapstaining as the main sources of defects. 13 mm thick boards take approximately 2 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 5 months.


Shrinkage is low in the radial direction (0.6%) and moderate in the tangential direction (1.3%).


The oak-like figure of this timber makes it suitable for interior finishing, decorative works, panelling, mouldings, joinery, cabinet making, decorative and high class furniture, flooring, door and window frames and sills, staircase (apron lining, handrail and sprandrel framing), vehicle bodies (framework and floor boards), plywood, telegraphic and power transmission posts and cross arms and other ornamental items.


  1. Burgess, H. J. 1958. Strength Grouping of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 25. The MalaysianTimber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.
  2. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S.C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  3. MS 544:Part 2:2001. Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Timber: Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  4. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.