Penarahan


INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber from the family Myristicaceae. Vernacular names applied include darah-darah (Sabah), darah-darah kerantu (Sabah), dara kerbau (Kelantan), kumpang (Sarawak), lempoyang paya (Sabah), lunau (Sabah), mendarah (Peninsular Malaysia), pala (Kedah) and penarahan arang (Peninsular Malaysia). Major species contributing to the timber include Gymnacranthera bancana, G. contracta, G. farquhariana var. eugeniifolia, G. forbesii; Horsfieldia grandis, H. irya, H. polyspherula, H. punctatifolia, H. irya, H. sucosa, H. superba; Knema conferta, K. furfuracea, K. hookeriana, K. laurina; Myristica cinnamomea, M. elliptica, M. gigantea, M. iners, M. lowiana and M. maingayi. The sapwood is lighter in colour and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is light yellow-brown, brown with occasional pink tinge and dark red-purple stripes. A blood-red core is found in some species.

Also known as Penarahan (Brunei); Kaundamu, Mali and Mavota (Fiji); Jathikai (India); Bedarah, Biawak, Dadara, Darah, Darah-darah, Hondala, Kala, Kumpang, Mandara, Mariak, Mendarahan, Mendarahan kera, Morolarie, Naoe boeloe, Padaki molaba, Pala burung, Para, Pendarah, Perdah, Salak, Saoenkorea manggone, Siamang, Sindai, Talimakas, Ubal dagal and Ukut (Indonesia); Mutwinda (Myanmar); Horsfieldia and Netmeg (Papua New Guinea); Ananiog, Anuping, Duguan, Dunguan and Tambalau (Philippines); Iriya, Malaboda and Ruk (Sri Lanka); and Leud Kwai (Thailand).

  
DENSITY

The timber is a Light Hardwood with a density of 370-770 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

M. gigantea was tested for its natural durability by the standard graveyard test. 22 specimens of dimension 50 mm x 50 mm x 600 mm, lasted for an average of 1 year. The timber is thus classified as non-durable. If used in contact with the ground or exposed to the weather, the timber will perish fairly easily. It is very rapidly attacked by subterranean termites and is not particularly resistant to the development and growth of fungal decay. The timber is very liable to powder-post beetle and dry wood termite attacks indoors.


PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

The timber is amenable to preservative treatment. 


TEXTURE

Texture is rather fine to slightly coarse and even, with straight grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group C (Engku, 1988b) or SG 5 (MS 544: Part 2:2001).


Strength Properties of Penarahan

Species

Test Condition

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

Modulus of Rupture(MPa)

Compression parallel to grain (MPa)

Compression perpendicular to grain (MPa)

Shear Strength (MPa) 

M. gigantea

Green

-

-

35.2

2.91

8.2

Air dry

-

-

43.6

5.65

9.6

M. maingayi

Green

9,380

51

25.4

4.07

8.1


MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is easy to saw and work and the planed surface is moderately smooth to smooth.


Machining Properties of Penarahan 

Species

Test condition

Sawing

Planing

Boring

Turning

Re-sawing

Cross- cutting

Ease of planing

Quality of finish

Ease of boring

Quality of finish

Ease of turning

Quality of finish

M. gigantea

Green

easy

easy

easy

moderately smooth

easy

smooth

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

moderately smooth

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

M. maingayi

Green

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

easy

smooth


NAILING PROPERTY

Nailing property is rated as good.


AIR DRYING

The timber seasons fairly slowly with slight cupping, bowing, end-checking, splitting and insect attacks as the main sources of degrade. 13 mm thick boards take approximately 3 months to air dry, while 38 mm thick boards take 4 months.


SHRINKAGE

Shrinkage is fairly high, radial shrinkage averages 2.2% while tangential shrinkage averages 3.2%.


DEFECTS

The logs of penarahan are remarkedly free of defects except a very small area around the pith in which heart-rot and compression failures or cross-breaks may occur. Living trees are rarely, if ever, attacked by borers but logs left lying around are quickly and severely attacked by pin-hole ambrosia beetles. The timber contains abundant starch up to a depth of at least 102 mm (4 in) from the bark so it is liable to powder-post beetle infestation.

   
USES

The timber is suitable for pattern making, packing boxes and crates, plywood, light temporary construction, internal partitioning, flooring, match boxes and splints, furniture, posts, beams, joists, rafters, cooling tower (non-structural members), joinery and cabinet making.


REFERENCES

  1. Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. 1988b. Basic And Grade Stresses For Some Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 38. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board And Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 13 pp.
  2. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Insitute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  3. Mohd. Shukari Midon. 1984. Malaysian Timbers - Penarahan. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 90. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 9 pp.
  4. MS 544: Part 2: 2001: Code Of Practice For Structural Use Of Timber. Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  5. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Record No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.