Bintangor


INTRODUCTION

The Standard Malaysian Name for the timber of Calophyllum spp. (Guttiferae). Vernacular names applied include bintangor (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak) with various epithets, bakokol (Sarawak), entangor (Sarawak) and penaga laut (Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah). Major species include C. biflorum, C. calaba var. bracteatum, C. canum, C. coriaceum, C. depressinervosum, C. ferrugineum var. ferrugineum, C. inophyllum, C. macrocarpum, C. pulcherrimum, C. sclerophyllum, C. symingtonianum, C. tetrapterum, C. teysmannii var. inophylloide and C. wallichianum (var. wallichianum and var. incrassatum). The sapwood is yellow-brown with a pink tinge and is well defined from the heartwood, which is deep red, red-brown, pink-brown or orange-brown.

Also known as Calophyllum (Australia); Bintangor (Brunei); Kathing and Phaong (Cambodia); Damanu (Fiji); Poon (India); Bintangur (Indonesia); Mai song (Laos); Ponnyet, Poon, Tharapi and Thitpyauk (Myanmar); Tamanou (New Caledonia & New Hebrides); Calophyllum (Papua New Guinea); Bitanghol and Bitaog (Philippines); Fetau and Tamanu (Samoa Islands); Ba’ula, Dalo and Kaila (Soloman Islands); Bintangoer, Domba-gass, Gunikina, Gurukina and Walukina (Sri Lanka); Ka Than Han, Ka Than Lan, Krathing and Tang Hon (Thailand); and Cong trang (Vietnam).


DENSITY

The timber is a Light Hardwood with a density of 465-865 kg/m3 and an average density of 640 kg/m3 air dry.


NATURAL DURABILITY

The natural durability of this timber ranges from moderately durable (C. ferrugineum var. ferrugineum) to non durable.


PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT

Bintangor can be categorised as moderately difficult to treat with preservatives.  


TEXTURE

Texture is moderately coarse to coarse and uneven, with interlocked, spiral or wavy grain.


STRENGTH PROPERTIES

The timber falls into Strength Group C (Engku, 1988b) or SG 5 (MS 544:Part 2:2001).


Strength Properties of Bintangor

Species

Test Condition

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

Modulus of Rupture(MPa)

Compression parallel to grain (MPa)

Compression perpendicular to grain (MPa)

Shear strength(MPa)

C. curtisii

Green

-

-

32.8

3.19

7.2

Air dry

-

-

-

-

-

C. retusum

Green

12,100

52

26.5

-

7.9

Air dry

14,300

74

36.7

-

10.8

C. inophyllum

Green

-

-

29.3

-

10.6

Air dry

-

-

-

-

-


MACHINING PROPERTIES

It is easy to resaw and cross-cut. Planing is easy and the planed surface is smooth to moderately smooth.


Machining Properties of Bintangor

Species

Test Condition

Sawing

Planing

Boring

Turning

Re-sawing

Cross Cutting

Ease of planing

Quality of finish

Ease of boring

Quality of finish

Ease of turning

Quality of finish

C. curtisii

Green

easy

easy

easy

moderately smooth

easy

fairly smooth

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

moderately smooth

easy

fairly smooth

slightly rough

-

C. inophyllum

Green

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

slightly rough

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

moderately smooth

easy

slightly rough

easy

slightly rough

C. retusum

Green

easy

easy

easy

smooth to moderately smooth

easy

smooth

-

-

Air dry

easy

easy

easy

smooth

easy

smooth

easy

slightly rough


NAILING PROPERTY

The nailing property is poor.


AIR DRYING

The seasoning characteristics of some of the species tested are summarised below: 

Species

Time to air dry (months)

Remarks

13 mm
thick boards

38 mm
thick boards

C. calaba              var. bracteatum

4

5

Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checks, splitting. Slight cupping and spring.

C. ferrugineum     var. ferrugineum

3

4.5

Fairly slow drying; moderate end-checks. Slight cupping, bowing and insect attacks.

C. inophyllum

3

5

Fairly slow drying; slight surface-checking and insect attacks.

C. rigidum

2

-

Fairly rapid drying; moderate spring; slight bowing, splitting and surface-checking.


KILN-DRYING

Kiln Schedule A is recommended. The timber dries moderately fast without much degrades, except for slight warping and end-checking. The timber kiln-dries from 50 to 10% moisture content in approximately 8 days.


Kiln Schedule A

Moisture Content (%)

Temperature (Dry Bulb)

Temperature (Wet Bulb)

Relative Humidity (%) (approx.)

° F

° C

° F

° C

Green

95

35.0

87

30.5

70

60

95

35.0

83

28.5

60

40

100

38.0

84

29.0

50

30

110

43.5

88

31.5

40

20

120

48.5

92

34.0

35

15

140

60.0

105

40.5

30


SHRINKAGE

The shrinkage of bintangor is summarised below: 

Species

Shrinkage (%)
(Green to air dry)

Remarks

Radial

Tangential

C. calaba var. bracteatum

2.1

3.3

Fairly high shrinkage

C. ferrugineum var. ferrugineum

2

3.7

Fairly high shrinkage

C. inophyllum

1.4

2.0

Moderate shrinkage

C. rigidum

1.6

2.9

Fairly high shrinkage


MOVEMENT IN SERVICE

The movement of seasoned timber is classified under Type II.


DEFECTS

Bintangor is generally sound except for slight spongy heart in some logs. The logs are rarely attacked by borers.  


USES

The timber is suitable for light construction, flooring, decking, panelling, mouldings, joinery, cabinet making, furniture, railway sleepers, ornamental items, posts, beams, joists, rafters, decorative solid door, ship and boat building (masts, spars, oars and helms), diving boards, plywood, wooden pallets (expendable type), door and window frames (internal use only) and staircase (angle blocks, rough bracket and apron lining). In several regions, the wood is much sought after for masts, spars, bridge work and scaffolding.


REFERENCES

  1. Abdul Rashid A. Malik. 1984. Malaysian Timbers - Bintangor. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 89. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 7 pp. 
  2. Engku Abdul Rahman Chik. 1998b. Basic and Grade Stresses for Strength Groups of Malaysian Timbers. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 38. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 13 pp.
  3. Menon, P. K. B. 1986. Uses of Some Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. Timber Trade Leaflet No. 31. The Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 48 pp.
  4. MS 544:Part 2:2001. Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Timber: Permissible Stress Design of Solid Timber.
  5. Wong, T. M. 1982. A Dictionary of Malaysian Timbers. Revised by Lim, S. C. & Chung, R. C. K. Malayan Forest Records No. 30. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 201 pp.